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Moonphase

Research over the last few decades has suggested that the compound psilocybin may have a number of therapeutic benefits, with potential to help treat anxiety, depression, and even addiction.

But until now, the ‘recipe’ for psilocybin has remained a mystery.

In a new study, scientists have characterized the four enzymes mushrooms use to make this compound for the first time, setting the stage for pharmaceutical production of the ‘powerful psychedelic fungal drug.’

Scientists have characterized the four enzymes mushrooms use to make psilocybin

After identifying and characterizing the enzymes behind psilocybin, the team from Friedrich Schiller University Jena was able to develop the first enzymatic synthesis of the compound, reports C&EN, a publication from the American Chemical Society.

To get to the correct ‘recipe,’ the team in the new study sequenced the genomes of two mushroom species.

Then, they used engineered bacteria and fungi to confirm gene activity and the order of the synthetic steps, according to C&EN.

Their efforts revealed a new enzyme, dubbed PsiD strips carbon dioxide from the tryptophan, while another adds a hydroxyl group – or, oxygen and hydrogen.  

Another enzyme, known as PsiK acts as a catalyst for phosphotransfer.

Then, an enzyme known as PsiM catalyzes the transfer of methyl groups.

Based on their discovery, the researchers developed a ‘one-pot reaction’ to create psilocybin from 4-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, using three of the enzymes: PsiD, PsiK, and PsiM.

According to the team, the results could now ‘lay the foundation’ for the production of pharmaceutical drugs based on psychedelic mushrooms.

 

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Mushinist

I sure hope that recipe is leaked and is achievable by the average kitchen chemist someday!:smiley-laughing019:

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MycoTowjam420
28 minutes ago, Mushinist said:

I sure hope that recipe is leaked and is achievable by the average kitchen chemist someday!:smiley-laughing019:

For real hahha

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Moonphase
19 hours ago, MycoTowjam420 said:

For real hahha

 

20 hours ago, Mushinist said:

I sure hope that recipe is leaked and is achievable by the average kitchen chemist someday!:smiley-laughing019:

It'll be published I'm sure!   Then it's just a matter of chemistry.  

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Mushinist
2 hours ago, Moonphase said:

Then it's just a matter of chemistry.  

The chemistry needed to get pure psilocybin now isn't for the average kitchen chemist, and difficult to do.

Only problems I see is either it will be extremely hard to get these enzymes, or L-tryptophan will be scheduled as a precursor and you won't be able to get it easily. Or the number of psilocybin overdoses that will follow.

Regardless I'll keep my eyes open.

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Researcher

I hope I did not miss out on this post. What the study above means is not enzymes for all unfortunately, but rather...

They have identified those enzymes and used DNA sequencing to locate where on the genome the genes that encode those enzymes are exactly. Nowadays we can cut and paste DNA, and if you now know where to cut you can remove precisely the genes that make these enzymes.

Quote

The discovery of enzymes that could cut and paste DNA made genetic engineering possible. Restriction enzymes, found naturally in bacteria, can be used to cut DNA fragments at specific sequences, while another enzyme, DNA ligase, can attach or rejoin DNA fragments with complementary ends.

So once they have these DNA fragments, they can then insert them into Aspergillus nidulans genome. If you want me to go into more detail on this let me know, I thought I would save you the boredom and leave it out. And then it reproduces and grows in submerged culture while they are feeding it precursors to psilocybin. So unless we get our hands on a genetically modified A. nidulans strain, we are out of luck.

Production options for psilocybin – the making of the magic

https://www.pubfacts.com/detail/30011099/Production-Options-for-Psilocybin-Making-of-the-Magic

Also it has been found that the paper that this thread is about, sequenced the DNA of P.Serbica and called it Cyanescens.

Convergent evolution of psilocybin biosynthesis by psychedelic mushrooms

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Thus we conclude that the genome
reported by Fricke et al. as Psilocybe cyanescens is in fact the genome of Psilocybe serbica,
and recommend that the relevant database annotations be updated accordingly.

https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2018/07/25/374199

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